Harnessing Technology for Dispute Resolution: A critical assessment of India’s ODR Policy 2021

Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional dispute resolution methods, such as litigation and arbitration. ODR leverages technology to resolve disputes efficiently and cost-effectively, making it a highly sought-after solution for individuals, businesses, and governments. Recognizing the potential of ODR in improving access to justice, India has taken significant strides in adopting ODR as a mainstream dispute resolution method. This article delves into India’s ODR policy that was launched in 2021, its key features, and the shortcomings that need to be addressed for ODR to realize its full potential in the country.

India’s ODR Policy: An Overview

India’s ODR policy stems from the broader framework of the National Policy on Information Technology (NPIT) and the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP). These policies aim to foster the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in improving governance, service delivery, and access to justice. ODR is a crucial component of these policies, as it seeks to leverage technology to resolve disputes in a more efficient, cost-effective, and accessible manner.

Key Features of India’s ODR Policy 2021

  1. Adoption of ODR platforms: India’s ODR policy advocates for the adoption and promotion of ODR platforms by various stakeholders, including the government, judiciary, businesses, and individuals. Several ODR platforms have been established in India, such as Centre for Online Resolution of Disputes (CORD)SAMA, and Presolv360, which provide a range of ODR services, including negotiation, mediation, and arbitration.
  2. Encouragement of public-private partnerships: The policy encourages public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the development and promotion of ODR platforms. This approach helps to ensure that ODR services are not only technologically advanced but also tailored to the specific needs of the Indian legal and business landscape.
  3. Integration with existing dispute resolution mechanisms: India’s ODR policy seeks to integrate ODR with traditional dispute resolution mechanisms, such as courts and arbitration centres. This integration allows for a seamless transition between online and offline dispute resolution processes, ensuring that disputing parties can benefit from the best of both worlds.
  4. Capacity building and awareness generation: India’s ODR policy emphasizes the need for capacity building and awareness generation among various stakeholders, including judges, lawyers, mediators, arbitrators, and the general public. This is crucial in fostering a culture of ODR adoption and ensuring that the benefits of ODR are widely understood and appreciated.
  5. Legal and regulatory framework: India’s ODR policy recognizes the need for a robust legal and regulatory framework to support the growth and acceptance of ODR. This includes the recognition and enforcement of ODR outcomes, data protection and privacy norms, and the development of best practices and standards for ODR service providers.

Shortcomings of India’s Online Dispute Resolution Policy

Despite its many strengths, there are some possible shortcomings of the ODR Policy that must be addressed. Some of the main concerns are:

  1. Lack of a comprehensive legal framework: While the policy recognizes the need for a robust legal and regulatory framework to support ODR, there is currently no comprehensive legislation in place to govern ODR in India. This has led to a lack of clarity on crucial issues, such as the enforceability of ODR outcomes, the jurisdiction of ODR providers, and the standards governing ODR platforms.
  2. Limited awareness and acceptance: While efforts have been made to promote ODR in India, awareness and acceptance of ODR remain limited, particularly among the general public and small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This limits the potential impact of ODR in improving access to justice and reducing the backlog of cases in the Courts.
  3. Digital divide and accessibility: Despite the rapid growth of internet penetration in India, a significant digital divide persists between urban and rural areas, as well as between different socio-economic groups. This limits the accessibility of ODR services to a large section of the population, undermining its potential to democratize access to justice
  4. Quality and credibility concerns: The absence of a comprehensive legal framework and standardization has led to concerns regarding the quality and credibility of ODR service providers. This could deter potential users from opting for ODR, hindering its adoption and growth.
  5. Lack of standardization and accreditation: The current policy does not provide a clear framework for the standardization and accreditation of ODR service providers. This can lead to concerns regarding the quality and credibility of ODR services, deterring potential users from opting for ODR and hindering its growth in India.
  6. Insufficient emphasis on capacity building: While the policy does mention capacity building and awareness generation, it lacks concrete plans and initiatives to ensure adequate training and skill development among judges, lawyers, mediators, arbitrators, and other stakeholders. This is crucial for fostering a culture of ODR adoption and ensuring that the benefits of ODR are widely understood and appreciated.
  7. Resistance from the legal community: The policy does not effectively address potential resistance from the legal community, which may perceive ODR as a threat to their practice. This resistance could slow down the integration of ODR with existing dispute resolution mechanisms and impede the growth of ODR in India.
  8. Inadequate focus on data protection and privacy: Although the policy acknowledges the importance of data protection and privacy, it does not provide specific guidelines or measures to ensure the security and confidentiality of data shared on ODR platforms. This can be a significant concern for users and may limit the adoption of ODR in India.


India’s ODR policy represents a significant step forward in the country’s quest to improve access to justice and harness the power of technology for dispute resolution. The key features of the policy, such as the adoption of ODR platforms, public-private partnerships, integration with traditional dispute resolution mechanisms, and capacity building, have laid a strong foundation for the growth of ODR in India.

However, several shortcomings need to be addressed to ensure the success of ODR in the country. The development of a comprehensive legal framework, increased awareness and acceptance, bridging the digital divide, addressing quality and credibility concerns, and overcoming resistance from the legal community are crucial for the widespread adoption of ODR in India.

In conclusion, India’s ODR policy offers a promising opportunity to transform the country’s dispute resolution landscape and improve access to justice for millions. By addressing the existing shortcomings and building on the strengths of the policy, India can emerge as a global leader in ODR and set an example for other countries to follow.